Engines

This page is a gateway to common regulatory information affecting stationary engines. These engines may be compression ignition (typically diesel) or spark ignition (typically gasoline or other gaseous fuels).

Even if engines are not subject to the regulations noted below, steps can be taken to help reduce emissions and their impact on our air quality. The following document shares some of these opportunities.

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (RICE) 40 CFR Part 63 Subpart ZZZZ

Does this rule apply to my facility? What are the requirements?

On January 30, 2013, the U.S. EPA updated the RICE NESHAP to incorporate final changes resulting from submitted technical information, legal challenges and petitions for reconsideration to the 2010 version of the standard. These changes took effect on April 1, 2013.

Of particular interest to many are changes to provisions for emergency engines.

More information on the rule from EPA:

NESHAP forms

Mailing instructions:

  • Non-Title 5 sources (i.e., those not needing a permit, or those with a registration, capped, or state permit):  Send the form to US EPA Region 5 in Chicago at the address found on the last page of the form.
  • Title 5 sources (major facilities): Send copies of the form to both the US EPA Region 5 in Chicago and the MPCA:
    AQ Compliance Tracking Coordinator
    Industrial Division
    Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
    520 Lafayette Road North
    St. Paul, MN 55155-4194

Rule

New Source Performance Standards

On January 30, 2013, the U.S. EPA updated the New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines and the NSPS for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines to ensure consistency with the RICE NESHAP. These changes took effect on April 1, 2013.

Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine (typically natural gas or gasoline)

Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engine (typically diesel fuel)

Is my engine subject to these New Source Performance Standards?

Air permitting

Does my facility need an air emissions permit?

If your facility has the potential to emit (PTE) pollutants into the air in excess of certain thresholds, your facility will need either a state or a federal permit. Examples of PDF icon Processes and equipment that may require air permits.

In addition, there are categories of sources that require air permits because new or modified facilities in the categories are subject to federal PDF icon New Source Performance Standards. The MPCA has several fact sheets and web pages regarding air quality permitting.

If engines are your only source of air emissions, you may use this Office spreadsheet icon spreadsheet to calculate your facility's PTE. You can also find written instructions for calculating potential emissions for engines and many other common emission unit types at https://www.pca.state.mn.us/air/emission-calculations.

My facility already has an air emissions permit; do I need to amend my permit?

It depends if the engine is new or existing and the type of permit your facility has. See below.

Registration and Capped Permit Holders

Existing Engines

If the engine's emissions are already included in a facility's registration permit or capped permit, generally no permit action is necessary. However, if the engine is subject to New Source Performance Standard Subpart JJJJ or Subpart IIII and the engine's displacement is less than 30 liters per cylinder, you must notify the MPCA using form Microsoft Office document icon CR-06: Registration and Capped Permits notification (aq-f6-cr06).

If your engine is subject to the NSPS Subpart IIII and the engine's displacement is 30 liters/cylinder or more you can no longer qualify for a registration permit or capped permit. You must apply for a different type of air permit.

For Registration Option B, if the engine qualifies as an insignificant activity you still qualify for Option B. If the engine does not qualify as an insignificant activity, then you must obtain a new type of permit. Other options include a Registration Option PDF icon C or PDF icon D permit.

New Engines

For registration (Option C and D) and capped permit holders no permit amendments are necessary to install a new engine, as long as the total facility emissions will remain below the permit limits as defined in the Minnesota rules for Option C or Option D.

If you are installing a new non-emergency engine, regardless of the type of permit you hold, you are required to complete modeling as described in Form EC-03, to demonstrate that the new engine will not cause localized modeled exceedances of National or Minnesota Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS and MAAQS). The form and all supporting information should be submitted to the MPCA as described in the form instructions.

Other Permit Types (Non-Registration Permit)

Existing Engines

If you hold an individual state or Part 70 permit, and the existing engine is subject to NESHAP Subpart ZZZZ and/or NSPS Subpart IIII or JJJJ, you may need to add the NESHAP of MSPS to your permit by submitting an amendment application by a specific date if you have 3 or more years remaining on the terms of your permit or, if you hold an unexpiring permit -- refer to Minn. Rule 7007.0400, subp. 3. Refer to the Change/Modification Application Forms (look for CH forms).

If the facility has a pending application with the MPCA for either an amendment or some type of operating permit, then there is a duty to supplement that application with the new applicable requirement - refer to Minn. Rule 7007.0600, subp.2.

If you hold a state Non-Metallic Mineral Processing General Permit, a Part 70 Manufacturing General Permit, or a Part 70 Low-Emitting Facility General Permit, the applicable NESHAP or NSPS is already included in the general permit for certain types of engines, so as long as your engine meets the specifications in the general permit, no permit action is necessary. If your engine does not meet the specifications described in the general permit, then you may have to apply for a different type of permit.

New Engines

General permit (state or Part 70) holders should follow the process outlined within their permit. (Update equipment list, account for the engine's emissions under the various caps, etc). No permit amendment is necessary as long as the total facility emissions remain below permit limits and the applicable requirements for the new engine are included in the general permit.

Individual permit (state or Part 70) holders - Refer to the CH forms to determine if a permit amendment is required.

If you are installing a new non-emergency engine, regardless of the type of permit you hold, you are required to complete modeling as described in Form EC-03, to demonstrate that the new engine will not cause localized modeled exceedances of National or Minnesota Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS and MAAQS). The form and all supporting information should be submitted to the MPCA as described in the form instructions.

Whom can I contact for more information

Engines

  • NESHAP Subpart ZZZZ: NSPS Subpart JJJJ and NSPS Subpart IIII, Brian Dickens, U.S. EPA Region 5, 312-886-6073

Air Permitting

  • Beckie Olson, MPCA, 651-757-2123.