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Minnesota’s PFAS Blueprint prioritizes pollution prevention as the most effective way to protect human health and the environment from the effects of “forever chemicals.” Small amounts of PFAS may be harmful, some build up in people over time, and all are difficult to remove from the environment. Pollution prevention also protects taxpayers from costly PFAS investigation and clean up expenses.

Minnesota has enacted laws — including but not limited to Amara’s Law — to end avoidable PFAS use in Minnesota by 2032. Certain details of Amara’s Law will be determined through an ongoing rulemaking process that includes public comment.

This webpage is provided as a consolidated reference and should not be relied on in place of Minnesota statutes and rules. In all these prohibitions, “PFAS” means a class of fluorinated organic chemicals containing at least one fully fluorinated carbon atom.

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PFAS prohibitions and reporting timeline 

July 1, 2020 – Firefighting foam for testing or training

Intentionally added PFAS in firefighting foam used for testing or training purposes prohibited except under certain conditions. 

Jan. 1, 2024 – Firefighting foam and food packaging

Firefighting foam

  • Intentionally added PFAS in firefighting foam prohibited for testing, training, and incident response, with limited exceptions which expire within a few years. The law makes no exceptions for individuals or state or municipal fire departments. (Minn. Stat. § 325F.072)
  • Airports may continue to use legacy Class B firefighting foam containing PFAS chemicals until the state fire marshal determines that the Federal Aviation Administration has approved the use of fluorine-free firefighting foams and those foams have become available in sufficient quantities.
  • Petroleum refineries and terminals may continue to use legacy class B firefighting foams through January 1, 2026, and may apply to the state fire marshal for a waiver to continue using legacy Class B foams beyond that date under strict requirements. (Minnesota Session Law – 2023, Chapter 60, Article 3, Section 31)
  • For additional guidance, see the MPCA’s fact sheet on firefighting foam use and disposal

Food packaging

Intentionally added PFAS in food packaging prohibited. (Minn. Stat. § 325F.075)

  • Food packaging includes any container that is used to market, protect, handle, deliver, serve, contain, or store a food or beverage.
  • The law applies to any layer of packaging, including a unit package, an intermediate package, and a shipping container.
  • The law applies to everything from the inks used on food and beverage containers to the interior or exterior blocking, bracing, cushioning, weatherproofing, tape, shrink wrap, or strapping used to protect the containers during shipping. 

Jan. 1, 2025 – PFAS in 11 categories of products

Intentionally added PFAS in 11 categories of products are prohibited. These are the first prohibitions under Amara’s Law to take effect. (Minn. Stat. § 116.943, Subd. 5a)

  • Carpets or rugs
  • Cleaning products  
  • Cookware
  • Cosmetics
  • Dental floss
  • Fabric treatments
  • Juvenile products
  • Menstruation products
  • Textile furnishings
  • Ski wax
  • Upholstered furniture

The MPCA may prohibit additional products if the products contain intentionally added PFAS and are likely to harm Minnesota’s environment and natural resources. (Minn. Stat. § 116.943, Subd. 5b)

Jan. 1, 2026 – Reporting requirements

Reporting requirements begin on PFAS in products. Any manufacturer selling products containing intentionally added PFAS in Minnesota must report on the PFAS and their purposes. (Minn. Stat. § 116.943, Subd. 2)

  • Pesticide and soil amendment products are reported to the MDA
  • All other products are reported to the MPCA

The Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA) will not register or renew the registration of pesticides or cleaning products which contain intentionally added PFAS unless the MDA determines it to be a currently unavoidable use. See the Minnesota Department of Agriculture page for more information.

Jan 1, 2032 – Currently avoidable use prohibited

  • All products which contain intentionally added PFAS, including pesticides and soil amendments, are prohibited unless the use of the PFAS in the product is determined to be a currently unavoidable use. (Minn. Stat. § 116.943, Subd. 5c)
  • Some medical products, including prosthetic devices and any medical devices, drugs, or products regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in medical applications, are exempted from the 2032 prohibitions. However, those products must be reported if they contain intentionally added PFAS starting in 2026. (Minn. Stat. § 116.943, Subd. 8)

Resources

Recorded PFAS in food packaging webinar (50 min.) -  The webinar (Nov. 2023) covered an overview of Minnesota’s PFAS in food packaging law, a review of applicable definitions, what businesses should do by January 1, 2024, enforcement, and Q&A.

Frequently asked questions

More Q&A will be added here as the MPCA resolves the issues they raise.

Q1: What does “intentionally added” mean?   
A1: "Intentionally added" means PFAS deliberately added during the manufacture of a product to perform a specific function. For instance, if PFAS are applied to a rain jacket to give it water-resistant properties, that PFAS is intentionally added. If very small amounts of PFAS are found in the rain jacket due the manufacturing process and the rain jacket is water-resistant due to the use of other substances, that PFAS may not be intentionally added.

Q2: How does anybody know whether products for sale in Minnesota contain PFAS?  
A2: Reporting requirements that take effect on January 1, 2026, will provide detailed information on PFAS in products. If the MPCA suspects a product contains PFAS and thus violates state law, the agency may require the manufacturer of the product to have it tested for PFAS.

Q3: Who determines a “currently unavoidable use” of PFAS?  
A3: The MPCA will determine currently unavoidable uses based on whether that product is essential for health, safety, or the functioning of society and on whether alternatives are not reasonably available. Rulemaking will create a process by which currently unavoidable use is determined for the MPCA. The Minnesota Department of Agriculture will make “currently unavoidable use” determinations for pesticides, fertilizers, soil and plant amendments, and agricultural liming products.

Q4: How will these prohibitions be enforced?
A4: MPCA has enforcement authorities under Minn. Stat. §§ 115.071 and 116.072 and may coordinate with the departments of agriculture, commerce, and health.