PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) is the preferred abbreviation used to collectively describe PFOA, PFOS, and other chemicals in this group. PFAS were previously referred to as PFCs.

PFAS in the waste stream

As PFAS enter the waste stream, they create challenges at landfills, compost sites, and wastewater treatment plants. The MPCA found PFAS in groundwater at 98 of the sites in its Closed Landfill Program. At 59 sites, the PFAS levels exceeded Minnesota Department of Health drinking water guidance values:

PFAS at compost sites

PFAS is a known issue in the contact water of commercial composting sites where organic materials like food waste, compostable food packaging, and yard waste are sent. MPCA has commissioned three studies to further understand PFAS issues associated with compost sites.

The first study examined PFAS concentrations in contact water at compost sites.

The second study reviewed available literature in an attempt to identify sources of PFAS at compost sites.

The third study examined concentration of PFAS in several paper yard waste bags to determine whether these bags were a significant contributor to the problem.

PFAS in groundwater

MPCA conducted PFAS monitoring across the ambient groundwater network in 2013 and 2019 (results not yet available). MPCA is considering the need for regular PFAS monitoring in the ambient network.

PFAS in wastewater

MPCA monitored influent, effluent, and sludge for PFAS at Minnesota wastewater treatment plants with a variety of treatment technologies and influent sources (residential, commercial, and industrial). MPCA aimed to better understand sources of PFAS in wastewater, environmental fate of the chemicals, and potential for human exposure.

Air

Results from MPCA’s pilot study of PFAS in ambient air and precipitation. In this year-long study, we collected air (gas and particulate phase) at four sites across Minnesota.

Lakes – fish

Average PFOS concentrations in bluegill, bass, pike, crappie, pumpkin seed fish

Data charts for PFAS concentrations found in fish in 10 metro-area lakes

Reporting of PFAS in fish in additional metro-area lakes. Data shows mixed results, from elevated PFAS levels to no detection. Variations likely due to stormwater runoff from varied land uses.

Landfills

Chart: Results of groundwater and leachate sampling conducted at about 40 landfills across Minnesota. The results show that PFCs are found in groundwater and/or leachate at a number of active landfills, many of which don’t have a history of accepting wastes related to the 3M Company’s manufacture of PFCs. Questions about the survey can be directed to Mark Rys at the MPCA, 651-757-2685.

5-page summary. PFCs were detected in leachate and gas condensate at every MSW-Combustor Ash and Industrial landfill (lined landfills).

Charts of leachate from landfills: Burnsville, Red Wing, Clay County, Elk River, Pine Bend, Rich Valley, Rosemount, Spruce Ridge, Steele County, Veolia Rolling Hills, Voyageurs.

Charts of leachates from landfills at Blue Earth, Brown County, Crow Wing, Markit, Morrison County, Rice County, St. Louis County

4 pages, charts: Veolia and Pine Bend landfill gas results

Chart of PFC samples from 40 solid waste and demolition landfills

Wastewater treatment plants

Chart of PFOs tested at 31 plants

Water quality – drinking wells and wells

4-page report to the legislature. 809 wells sampled, 351 well advisories issued.

Groundwater sampling data from 33 landfills