Mining has a long history in Minnesota. Iron ore has been mined here since the 1800s, and the taconite industry is an important sector in our state’s economy. Today, the state’s extensive copper and nickel deposits are just being proposed to be mined. While many activities related to mining are regulated by other state and federal agencies, including the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR), the MPCA plays an important part in the state’s mining sector as well.

Where are metallic mining activities located in Minnesota?

Minnesota state agencies collect data on the locations of metallic mining activities and sites. Agencies collect different data because regulatory authority over each type of activity varies between regulatory agencies.

MPCA’s role in mining

Environmental review

The MPCA participates in environmental review for mining projects where, most commonly, the DNR is the responsible governmental unit.


Permits the MPCA issues for mining operations include air emissions, wastewater, and activity involving fill of surface waters, including wetlands (Section 401 certification). MPCA’s permitting authority is described in Minnesota Statutes Chapters 116.07 (air quality), Minnesota Rules Chap. 7001.1000 – 7001.1150 (water quality), and Minnesota Rules Chap. 7001.1400 – 7001.1470  (wetlands/401 certification).

Responsibilities for permitting include:

  • Air quality
  • Water quality
  • Solid waste
  • Hazardous waste storage and transportation
  • Above- and below-ground storage tanks
  • Section 401 certification

Air permitting

MPCA air quality permits are issued to mining facilities to identify the units at each facility that generate air pollutants and, where applicable, place limits on those emissions. In some cases air permits may also authorize construction or modification of a facility. Permits issued to mining facilities control air emissions from crushing and handling of rock, combustion sources such as furnaces, and fugitive dust.

All air permits, including those issued to mining facilities, are posted on the MPCA webpages listing air permits issued in Minnesota.

For more information on air quality permits, check these publications on the MPCA website:

Water permitting

MPCA water quality permits establish specific discharge limits and requirements to protect Minnesota's surface and groundwater quality for a variety of designated uses, such as drinking water, fishing and recreation.  For links to more information on MPCA wastewater permitting, visit the Water Permits and Rules page.

Section 401 certification

MPCA also uses the Section 401 certification program to protect water quality standards. Any project with a discharge that needs a federal permit, such as a permit to dredge or fill wetlands or surface waters, also needs a Section 401 certification. The 401 certification is part of a larger water quality protection effort that is an integral part of the Federal Clean Water Act. The program often works closely with other agencies that play a role in water quality protection, including the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DNR, Minnesota Board of Soil and Water Resources, and local government agencies.

Miner in hard hat

Silica sand

Visit MPCA's silica sand page for activities and sites related to silica sand or other nonmetallic mining in Minnesota.

Links to MPCA information

Links to other information