Wetlands in Minnesota
Minnesota has an estimated 10.6 million acres of wetlands — about 19% of the state. These wetlands are home to a wide array of plants and animals and are an important part of Minnesota's water resources. Wetlands also absorb storm flows and protect downstream water quality in lakes and streams. However, pollutants such as excess sediments and nutrients, as well as changes in hydrology, can diminish the ability of wetlands to protect water quality and support natural biological communities.
Wetlands are considered to be waters of the state and, generally, fall under the MPCA's mission to protect Minnesota's surface waters. Regulation of Minnesota's wetlands is administered by local governments and by multiple federal and state agencies, including the MPCA.
How are Minnesota's wetlands doing?
Two recent reports from the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources provide a comprehensive look at the current status of wetlands in Minnesota. Read more.
Wetland water quality standards
Minnesota water quality standards regulate project-specific physical changes to wetlands due to inundation, dredging, filling, or drainage. To protect wetlands, water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and chlorides may need to be maintained at background conditions. For more information:
- Minnesota Rules - Waters of the State (Chapter 7050)
- Minnesota Wetlands Water Quality Standards
- Physical Alterations to Wetlands
Protecting wetland water quality
401 Water Quality Certification
The federal Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that anyone who conducts activities involving dredge and fill of waters of the U.S. must obtain from the state a Section 401 water quality certification to ensure the project will comply with state water quality standards. The majority of 401 activities are regulated under general CWA Section 404 permits from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and are pre-certified or waived. However, projects of large scope or direct impact to outstanding resource value waters may warrant a project specific 401 certification.
More information: Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certifications
Unmanaged stormwater can negatively impact surface waters, including wetlands. The MPCA administers the Stormwater Program primarily under three general stormwater permits: Municipal (MS4), industrial, and construction stormwater. Stormwater regulations and management practices in Minnesota that pertain to wetlands can be found on the Stormwater Program page.
Wetland monitoring and assessment
The MPCA has developed methods and criteria to assess wetland quality — primarily based on invertebrate and vegetation community responses to human impacts. The goals of this effort are to monitor the status and trends of wetland quality to help protect and restore the integrity of Minnesota's wetlands by providing scientifically valid information to make informed management decisions. More information on wetland monitoring at the MPCA can be found on the wetland monitoring and assessment page.
Wetland Program Planning
The MPCA, in conjunction with other state and federal agencies, periodically engages in wetland program planning activities. These activities provide a platform to more systematically gauge effectiveness and determine priorities.
Minnesota Wetland Program Plan
A Wetland Program Plan has recently been completed by Minnesota natural resource agencies. The plan was developed in response to a request by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for states to document progress and propose priority work towards building capacity to meet the U.S. EPA wetland program core elements:
- Monitoring and assessment
- Regulatory activities including 401 certification
- Voluntary restoration and protection
- Water quality standards for wetlands
A multi-agency effort to develop a framework to determine whether Minnesota is meeting the no net loss policy goal was completed in 2006. The overall goal of the state wetland monitoring strategy was to develop a broadly understood and scientifically sound approach for monitoring and assessing the status and trends of wetland quantity and quality statewide. A number of activities have been initiated to meet CWAMMS recommendations including:
- A DNR remote-sensing survey to monitor the overall status and trends of wetland quantity
- MPCA wetland quality status and trends surveys
- Phased updates of the National Wetland Map inventory maps for Minnesota
- An improved wetland bank accounting system
Related wetland links
- Board of Water and Soil Resources: Information about Minnesota's Wetland Conservation Act and related training and administration
- Department of Natural Resources: Basic wetland information and wetland programs
- Army Corps of Engineers, St. Paul District - Federal wetland regulatory and permitting information
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 5: Federal wetland regulatory and technical support information
In the newsScientists check health of state's wetlands (MPR)
For more information
Mark Gernes, MPCA, 651-757-2387