C&D waste: Reduce, reuse, and recycle
Waste reduction, reuse, and recycling are important components of sustainable building. Construction and demolition waste (C&D) includes materials generated from building a structure (construction) and those created during the wrecking of a building (demolition debris).
Collection of C&D waste must be kept separate from traditional garbage collection (municipal solid waste, or MSW). Often, C&D waste is landfilled in special demolition landfills, which operate under different rules than MSW landfills. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency has suspended efforts to amend Minnesota's demolition landfill rules and instead is focusing on providing more consistency in implementing current rules. For more information: Minnesota rules for hazardous waste, solid waste, and tanks.
Tremendous opportunities exist for reusing and recycling C&D waste. The Minnesota Sustainable Design Guideprovides strategies for the diversion of 80% of demolition debris and 75% of construction waste (both by volume) from landfills through salvage, recycling, and/or recovery.
Salvaged wood typically is not graded to comply with building codes for construction. To be accepted by building inspectors for reuse, salvaged wood must be approved by an engineer for its specific load-bearing use in the construction project.
Salvaged fixtures for the bathroom and lighting may be less resource-conserving than new fixtures. Striking the right balance between waste reduction vs. conservation often depends on the intended use of the salvaged item.
Minnesota Recycling Markets Directory
Includes a listing of brokers, processors, and end users of construction and demolition wastes. Markets for shingles and gypsum wallboard (Sheetrock®) are being developed and may provide viable options in the future.
Minnesota Materials Exchange
Materials exchanges connect businesses that have reusable goods to those who can use them. Minnesota's program is a network of free services around the state, coordinated by the Minnesota Technical Assistance Program (MnTAP). Materials Exchange can help you find low- or no-cost materials, save money on disposal costs, and find new markets for surplus materials. Check out their online catalog or call 612-624-1300 (800-247-0015 Minnesota toll free).
The Free Market, operated by Eureka Recycling, is a listing service for Twin Cities residents who want to get or give free reusable goods for the home, garage and garden. Check out the "Home Renovation" category.
Reduce construction waste
Specify waste reduction and recycling in the contracts both for the architect/designer and for the construction contractor.
An excellent resource is WasteSpec: Model Specifications for Construction Waste Reduction, Reuse & Recycling. This 114-page manual includes model specifications tailored to all 16 divisions of the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) system. It provides model language and the cost implications for waste reduction, reuse and recycling during demolition and construction. The web site offers free download of the manual and a set of case studies.
Deconstruct old buildings to salvage reusable and recyclable materials.
Hiring a deconstruction firm to handle projects ranging from light salvage and remodeling preparation to full structure dismantling for reuse can dramatically cut the amount of waste transferred to demolition landfills.
- Twin Cities area: DeConstruction Services provides trained and insured crews for all types of projects. Call 612-728-9388 to schedule a deconstruction project.
- Duluth area, Common Ground Deconstruction provides crews for deconstruction projects. Contact Jodi Slick at 218-740-3666.
Work with building designers to make sure they understand that reducing waste is a priority.
Many opportunities exist at the design stage to use materials more efficiently. For example, designing rooms to fit standard-sized building supplies (i.e., eight-foot lengths) will greatly reduce waste. "Advanced framing" is a set of framing techniques used to reduce the amount of lumber used and waste generated in the construction of a wood-framed house. Learn more with this 6-page fact sheet from the Office of Building Technology | Advanced Wall Framing (800Kb)
Salvage reusable material from the construction site.
Designate an area on the construction site for reusable material. Reuse it on-site or sell it from the job site, or give it to employees or neighbors. Advertise items through the Minnesota Materials Exchange or the Twin Cities FreeMarket. Useable building materials from construction sites are accepted by some non-profit organizations, and you may get a tax break for the donation. Try Habitat for Humanity (612-331-4090 x611), the ReUse Center (612-724-2608), or Project for Pride in Living (612-789-3322).
Use salvaged materials in all building construction projects.
Deconstruction and salvaging are not viable activities unless people are willing to purchase and reuse these materials. Check the Minnesota Materials Exchange for needed items. In Minneapolis, the ReUse Center's warehouse and store (612-724-2608) sell used building materials obtained from donations and deconstruction projects. In Winona, the Habitat ReStore (507-474-6075) offers overstocked, discontinued, slightly damaged, and used building materials for resale to the public.
Look in the Yellow Pages under Salvage-Merchandise for other companies that sell salvaged building materials and hardware.
Model deconstruction policy
This resolution establishing a deconstruction policy was developed by the city of Fridley, where they used the deconstruction of a single-family home as a test case before the resolution was adopted.Sample deconstruction policy
Hazardous waste considerations
To help contractors properly manage hazardous wastes generated at construction and demolition sites, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency developed a number of fact sheets:
- Ballasts or PCB Wastes
- Lead paint disposal
- Residential Lead Paint Waste Disposal - Summary for Contractors, Landfill Operators and Residents
- Use, Disposal and Alternatives
- Guidance on the Removal, Transport and Disposal of Category I Asbestos-containing Materials, such as Floor Coverings and Asphalt Roofing Materials
- Guidance for the Removal, Transport and Disposal of Category II Asbestos-containing Materials, such as Transite Shingles and Siding
- Pre-Demolition Environmental Checklist and Guide
- Notification of Intent to perform a demolition
Additional web sites and resources
Built to Last: Preventing Waste from Construction, Renovation, and Demolition Materials | www.informinc.org/fact_CWPconstruction.php
Building construction uses huge amounts of raw materials and generates large amounts of waste. INFORM's fact sheet describes strategies to reduce waste and prevent pollution generated during building construction, renovation and demolition.
Construction and Demolition Debris | www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/debris-new/
The U.S. EPA's new site contains extensive links and information about managing, reducing, reusing and recycling C&D debris. Includes excellent reports and case studies on deconstruction.
ILSR Waste to Wealth: Building Deconstruction | www.ilsr.org/recycling/decon/
The Institute for Local Self-Reliance has many useful resources on deconstruction and the reuse/recycling of C&D material, including case studies and a series of informative EPA fact sheets for download.
New Mexico Builder Guide | www.nmrecycle.org/builders/index.htm
Reuse Development Organization (ReDO) | www.redo.org
ReDO is a clearinghouse for information on reuse opportunities nationwide. ReDO helps companies redistribute donations of materials too big for a single reuse center. The web site contains a good discussion of the environmental, community and economic benefits of reuse. Click on "Model Programs" for success stories such as Baltimore's The Loading Dock, Business Assets Unlimited, and Disney World's Building Materials Donations Program.
Sustainability in the Buildings Industry: How ASTM Standards are Addressing the Trend | www.astm.org/SNEWS/archive.html August 2001
This article from Standardization News includes contains links to ASTM International's Subcommittee on Sustainability and two new sustainability standards.